• 【人間餘話】從Duty to Resist 到 Protests being Crimes (下)|劉偉聰
  • 2020-03-26    

 

那我們有否duty of justice to resist?

Candice Delmas 斬釘截鐵:有!

首先,在Delmas心上,甚麼是Resistance? Resistance 是 ‘a multidimensional continuum of dissenting acts and practices, all of which express condemnation of and/or refusal to conform to the dominant system’s norms.’ 其用心有二,一是 communicative purposes,勢要藉反抗以暴露和譴責制度的不公不義,俾公義之色廣傳人間;二是reformative purposes,叫人不要墮入該制度的不義之中,不為虎作倀,不助紂為虐,最終以求有所改變。

Delmas 說,fairness and Samaritan arguments 俱邀請我們有所作為!

Fairness argument 說的是,假如「你每天都以無數的方式受惠於歧視的制度,並目撃其不義」,你不應繼續參與其中,事關你的所得正來自受剝削者的痛楚所失,即如一副一派表面安然的社會秩序,原來源自惡法的鎮壓,被鎮壓的人入獄受苦,閣下生活中的安寧舒適原來是人血饅頭,此時也,'fairness demands political solidarity with the oppressed, as a way to express the beneficiaries’ commitment to fairness—to cease gaining from the unjust scheme and share in the burdens of reforming it.’

Samaritans,即《聖經》上的撒瑪利亞人,simply ‘stop in their tracks when they see an injustice, and lend a helping hand.’ 這點我們俱能明白,但其實「見孺子將入於井」,遂掀起我們的怵惕惻忍之心,那不是argument,而是一種因 empirical fact 而生成的 moral axiom。1971年 Peter Singer 的開山名作‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’ 已錚錚然教過我們,雖然篇中著眼的是環球的人道援助,但Singer 更著力的是叫我們明白,向受難的人施予援手是不證自明的道德原則。

Delmas的書上尚有多處探討resistance 的risks 和 carveats,雖利害攸關,但恕我未能一一述及。Delmas書大家還是整本拿來下酒吧!伊人的創見在於點出,傳統liberal democracy 的理想和價值如 fairness 和 solidarity 常被視為和理非非,但伊人娓娓寫來,論證的是:’Basic liberal commitments can and do have far reaching and radical implications for how we ought to respond to injustice around us.’ 我們不要小覷liberal democratic values 的溫柔和激烈。

但縱然是liberal democracy,政權也樂於透過 criminalisation 來 dilute, demonise and negate 公民憑duty of justice 而作的resistance! 高眉友人月前促我讀一本應節之書 ‘When Protest Becomes Crime’,副題是’Politics and Law in Liberal Democracies’,作者又是一位伊人,芳名Carolijn Terwindt,任職於European Centre For Constitutional and Human Rights。此卷以三地(西班牙,智利和美利堅)的case studies 來論證政權如何借法濫權(亦云「依法施政」),將抗爭變成死罪,我城人仔必然讀得心寒,一切如是眼前嚴霜。可不是嗎?試看看這一小段:

‘Authorities can also target challenges of the status quo for unrelated legal infractions like traffic or administrative offences, or they can order inflated bail. The authorities can raise these obstacles while still adhering to the formal due process requirements of criminal law.’

我欲無言,也因我尚未看完’When Protest Becomes Crime,一切還在unfolding 中......


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